DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL IMAGING MODALITIES
Types of Medical Imaging & Therapy
Artificial Intelligence is assisting radiologists to evaluate the complex megapixel images obtained from x-rays, computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound scanning, nuclear medicine technology and theranostics imaging and other diagnostic medical imaging modalities.
X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCANNING
The foundation of diagnostic medical imaging modalities derives from x-rays using ionising radiation to produce images of the internal structures of the body. The mode of action involves the attenuation of x-ray beams as they transverse through the body. These devices are used in mammography, interventional radiology, computed radiography, digital radiography and computed tomography scanning (CT).
Medical Imaging Modalities include computed tomography scanning of the human body by reconstructing 3-D images from the multiple x-ray projections. These CAT Scans are used in conjunction with other diagnostic imaging tools to help in the diagnosis of disease states.
NUCLEAR MEDICINE TECHNOLOGY
The nuclear medicine technology positron emission tomography (PET) is used to obtain functional information on tissues and organs. PET can be combined with CT imaging to produce a robust diagnostic scanner to enable a trace amount of the radiopharmaceutical to be injected into the patient allowing for the generation of images within the human body. The PET and CT images can be superimposed to evaluate delineation of tumour volumes, staging and personalised treatment plans. Another application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is to show how blood flows to tissues and organs.
Radiation Therapy devices utilise x-rays, gamma rays and electron beams including proton beam therapy to treat specific cancers. The non-surgical procedure stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) utilises radiation for the management of brain tumours. The objective of stereotactic radiosurgery is to deliver a high dose of radiation to the tumour site in comparison to other radiotherapy treatments.
Theranostics imaging is an emerging field of medicine which combines specific targeted therapy based on individual targeted diagnostic tests. The theranostic approach utilises a personalised and precise approach towards the treatment of the disease state. During the design of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals based on nanoscience, diagnostic imaging with therapeutic applications are united to produce a single target agent. The theranostics imaging approach allows for diagnosis and treatment planning including the development of new drug delivery systems.
MRI | ULTRASOUND SCANNING
The non-radiation medical imaging techniques include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which utilise radio waves and a strong magnetic field to enable the formation of detailed images of organs and tissues. This powerful medical imaging tool can differentiate between healthy and diseased soft tissues within the body. Also, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assists in the treatment planning stage for a patient undergoing image-guided surgery (Gamma Knife).
Furthermore, ultrasound scanning also known as ultrasonography uses high-frequency sound waves to produce internal images of the body. The principle of the ultrasound scanning is to send sound waves into the body converting the returning sound echoes to generate anatomical pictures.