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The Impact of PET Scans in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
The role of positrons in nuclear medicine began with its discovery in 1932 by Carl David Anderson. It opened up numerous opportunities for their application in various fields, including medical imaging. This article will discuss the role of positrons in medical imaging, specifically focusing on their use in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans, the associated benefits and limitations, and future developments in the field.
PET is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that visualises the metabolic activity of tissues within the body. It is primarily used for detecting cancer, evaluating the response to therapy, and monitoring the progression of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
The PET scan procedure involves injecting a small amount of a radioactive tracer, usually a biologically active molecule labelled with a positron-emitting radionuclide, into the patient’s bloodstream. The radionuclide decays as the tracer accumulates in the target tissues, emitting positrons. Upon encountering an electron in the tissue, the positron undergoes annihilation, producing two gamma photons with energies of 511 keV, which travel in opposite directions.
These gamma photons are detected by a ring of detectors surrounding the patient. Their coincident detection allows for accurately determining the location of the tracer’s uptake within the body. This information is then used to generate a three-dimensional image, providing insights into the metabolic activity of the tissues.
Positrons in Nuclear Medicine
Several positron-emitting radionuclides are used in PET imaging, each with different characteristics that make them suitable for specific applications. The most commonly used radionuclide is fluorine-18 (F-18), which has a half-life of approximately 110 minutes. F-18 is often used to label fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a glucose analogue that is taken up by cells with high metabolic activity, such as cancer cells.
Other positron-emitting radionuclides include carbon-11 (C-11), nitrogen-13 (N-13), and oxygen-15 (O-15), which have shorter half-lives and are used for specialised imaging applications.
PET scans offer a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for detecting and localising cancerous lesions, making them an invaluable tool in diagnosing and staging various types of cancer. This high accuracy is due to the ability of PET scans to detect changes in the metabolic activity of tissues, which often precedes anatomical changes observed in other imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
In addition to providing information on the body’s anatomy, PET scans can reveal functional and molecular processes occurring within tissues. This allows for assessing various physiological parameters, such as blood flow, oxygen consumption, and glucose metabolism, providing insights into the underlying disease processes and monitoring treatment response.
Combination with Other Imaging Modalities PET scans is often combined with CT or MRI scans in a single examination, known as PET/CT or PET/MRI, respectively. This combination provides functional and anatomical information in a single image, enabling more accurate localisation of lesions and improving diagnostic confidence.
PET scans are crucial in monitoring the response to treatment in patients undergoing cancer therapy. By evaluating changes in metabolic activity, PET scans can help determine the effectiveness of a given treatment, allowing clinicians to make informed decisions about continuing, modifying, or stopping a particular therapy. This helps in personalising treatment plans and optimising patient outcomes.
One of the primary concerns associated with PET scans is exposure to ionising radiation, which can potentially increase the risk of cancer over time. However, the radiation dose from a single PET scan is relatively low and is considered acceptable when balanced against the significant diagnostic benefits provided.
PET scans are generally more expensive than other imaging modalities such as CT and MRI, making them less accessible to some patients. Additionally, the availability of PET scanners is limited in certain geographic areas, potentially requiring patients to travel long distances to access this technology.
While PET scans offer high sensitivity for detecting metabolic changes in tissues, their spatial resolution is lower than CT and MRI scans. This can make it challenging to precisely localise small lesions or abnormalities, particularly in areas with complex anatomy.
PET scans can occasionally produce false-positive results, where areas of increased tracer uptake are incorrectly identified as cancerous lesions. This can be due to inflammation, infection, or other benign processes that increase metabolic activity. Conversely, false-negative results can occur when cancerous lesions have low metabolic activity or are too small to be detected.
Research is ongoing to develop new tracers and radionuclides that target specific molecular markers, improving the specificity and sensitivity of PET imaging. These novel tracers will detect a more comprehensive range of diseases and provide a more detailed understanding of the underlying molecular processes.
Time-of-Flight (TOF) PET is an advanced PET imaging technique that measures the difference in arrival times of the two gamma photons produced during positron annihilation. This additional timing information improves the image quality and spatial resolution, allowing for more accurate localisation of tracer uptake within the body.
Integrating artificial intelligence and machine learning in PET imaging can revolutionise the field by automating the analysis and interpretation of PET images, improving the accuracy of diagnosis, and providing predictive insights into disease progression and treatment response.
The table below shows some radioisotopes used in medical imaging, along with their half-lives and typical applications:
|Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for various applications, including bone, heart and brain imaging
|Thyroid imaging, cerebral blood flow and neuroendocrine tumour imaging
|Thyroid imaging and therapy, whole-body scans in thyroid cancer patients
|Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for cancer, brain and cardiac imaging
|Infection and inflammation imaging, tumour location
|Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for cardiac evaluation
|Infection imaging, tumour imaging, white blood cell imaging
|PET imaging for brain metabolism, neurotransmitter imaging, and tumour imaging
|PET imaging for mycardial perfusion and blood flow
|PET imaging for cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism
|PET imaging for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI)
|PET imaging for neuroendocrine tumour imaging and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) imaging
|PET imaging for cancer imaging and therapy, cell trafficking and hypoxia imaging
|PET imaging for immuno-PET applications and tracking of labelled antibodies
- A positron, a positively charged subatomic particle (the antiparticle of an electron), is emitted by a radionuclide, typically used in medical imaging procedures like PET scans.
- The positron travels a short distance within the tissue (usually a few millimetres) before encountering an electron, a negatively charged subatomic particle.
- When the positron meets the electron, they undergo a process called annihilation. In this process, both particles are destroyed, and their combined mass is converted into energy.
- The annihilation event generates two gamma photons, each with an energy of 511 keV (kilo-electron volts). These photons are emitted in opposite directions (approximately 180 degrees apart) due to the conservation of momentum.
- The gamma photons travel through the tissue and are detected by the PET scanner’s ring of detectors. The PET scanner uses the information from these detected photons to determine the location of the original positron emission, ultimately generating a three-dimensional image of the tracer’s distribution in the body.
The table below shows some radiopharmaceuticals used in medical imaging and their applications:
|F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)
|PET imaging for cancer, brain and cardiac imaging, as well as inflammation and infection imaging
|Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP)
|SPECT imaging for bone scans (eg detecting fractures, infections and metastases)
|Tc-99m Sestamibi (MIBI)
|SPECT imaging for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and parathyroid imaging
|SPECT imaging for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI)
|I-123 Sodium iodide
|SPECT imaging for thyroid function and morphology and thyroid cancer imaging
|I-131 Sodium iodide
|SPECT imaging and therapy for thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism
|In-111 Pentetreotide (Octreoscan)
|SPECT imaging for neuroendocrine tumour imaging
|Ga-68 DOTATATE / DOTATOC / DOTANOC
|PET imaging for neuroendocrine tumour imaging
|PET imaging for prostate cancer imaging
|PET imaging for prostate cancer and brain tumour imaging
|C-11 PIB (Pittsburgh Compound B)
|PET imaging for Alzheimer’s disease, assessing amyloid-beta plaques in the brain
|PET imaging for myocardial perfusion and blood flow
|PET imaging for cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism
|Rb-82 Rubidium chloride
|PET imaging for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI)
|Zr-89 Labelled antibodies
|PET imaging for immuno-PET applications, tracking labelled antibodies for cancer imaging
Alpha particles, consisting of two protons and two neutrons, are ionising radiation emitted during the decay of certain radioactive isotopes. While their use in medical imaging is limited due to their short range and high linear energy transfer, they have found valuable applications in targeted alpha therapy (TAT) for cancer treatment. This essay will discuss the role of alpha particles in medical imaging and therapy, focusing on their properties, therapeutic applications, and potential future developments.
Alpha particles are heavy, positively charged particles with a high linear energy transfer (LET), meaning they deposit a large amount of energy over a relatively short distance. In tissue, alpha particles typically have a range of only a few tens of micrometres. Depending on the application, this short-range results in a significant dose deposition in a small volume, which can be both advantageous and disadvantageous.
Due to their high LET, alpha particles can cause significant damage to biological tissues, particularly the DNA within cells. This makes them potentially effective for cancer treatment but also poses risks to healthy tissues if not accurately targeted.
Alpha particles have limited direct applications in medical imaging due to their short range and high LET. In addition, the short range of alpha particles prevents them from effectively penetrating tissues and reaching detectors outside the body, making them unsuitable for traditional imaging techniques like PET and SPECT.
However, alpha-emitting isotopes can play a role in specialised imaging techniques, such as autoradiography and single-cell imaging. Autoradiography involves using alpha-emitting isotopes in histological studies to visualise the distribution of radiolabeled compounds in tissue samples. This technique can help researchers understand the uptake and distribution of therapeutic agents or other molecules in biological systems.
Alpha Particles in Targeted Alpha Therapy for Cancer Treatment
Alpha particles are used in targeted alpha therapy (TAT), an emerging cancer treatment modality. TAT involves using alpha-emitting isotopes conjugated to cancer-targeting molecules, such as antibodies, peptides, or small molecules. These alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical conjugates can selectively bind to cancer cells, delivering a highly localised dose of ionising radiation.
The high LET and short range of alpha particles offer several advantages for TAT:
- The ionising radiation emitted by alpha particles is highly effective at inducing irreparable DNA damage in cancer cells, leading to cell death. This makes alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals highly potent, even against radioresistant or hypoxic tumours.
- Due to their short range, alpha particles deposit most of their energy within a small volume, reducing the risk of damage to surrounding healthy tissues. This property allows for delivering a high therapeutic dose to cancer cells while minimising side effects.
- The unique DNA damage caused by alpha particles is challenging for cancer cells to repair, reducing the risk of developing resistance to the therapy.
Several alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals are currently under investigation for TAT applications: Radium-223 dichloride (Ra-223): Radium-223 is an alpha-emitting isotope for treating bone metastases in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. It selectively targets areas of bone remodelling, delivering a high dose of alpha radiation to the metastatic lesions. Actinium-225 (Ac-225) and Bismuth-213 (Bi-213) conjugates: Actinium-225 and Bismuth-213 are alpha-emitting isotopes that can be conjugated to cancer-targeting molecules, such as antibodies or peptides. These conjugates can selectively deliver alpha radiation to specific cancer cells, sparing healthy tissues. Some examples of Ac-225 and Bi-213 conjugates under investigation include:
- Ac-225-PSMA-617, this radiopharmaceutical, targets the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Ac-225-PSMA-617 has shown promising results in early clinical trials to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
- Ac-225-DOTATOC/DOTATATE, these radiopharmaceuticals target somatostatin receptors, which are overexpressed in neuroendocrine tumours. Preclinical studies and early clinical trials have demonstrated the potential of Ac-225-DOTATOC/DOTATATE for treating patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumours.
- Bi-213-Lintuzumab, this radiopharmaceutical, is an anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody conjugated to Bismuth-213. It targets the CD33 antigen, which is overexpressed on the surface of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells. Bi-213-Lintuzumab is currently under investigation as a potential targeted therapy for patients with AML.
Challenges and Future Perspectives
While targeted alpha therapy has shown promise in preclinical studies and early clinical trials, several challenges must be addressed to realise its potential fully:
- The production of alpha-emitting isotopes, such as Ac-225 and Bi-213, is complex and often limited by the availability of suitable reactors and targets. As a result, efforts are underway to develop new production methods and improve isotope availability for research and clinical use.
- Developing effective and safe alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals requires optimisation of the targeting molecule, chelator, and radionuclide to ensure selective delivery and minimal off-target effects. This involves extensive preclinical research and testing.
- Accurate dosimetry is essential for determining the optimal therapeutic dose while minimising the risk of radiation-induced side effects. Improved dosimetry models and methods are needed to predict better alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals’ biodistribution, radiation dose, and potential toxicities.
- As with any novel therapeutic modality, targeted alpha therapy must navigate complex regulatory pathways and commercialisation challenges to reach patients. Close collaboration between researchers, clinicians, regulatory agencies, and industry partners will translate TAT from the bench to the bedside.
In summary, alpha particles have limited direct applications in medical imaging, but their unique properties have opened new avenues for cancer therapy through targeted alpha therapy. The development of alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals has shown promising results in preclinical and early clinical studies, offering the potential for improved outcomes for patients with hard-to-treat cancers. Continued research, development, and collaboration across disciplines will be essential to overcome the challenges associated with TAT and bring this promising therapeutic modality to routine clinical practice.
Beta Particles in Medicine: Illuminating the Path for Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Beta particles are high-energy, charged particles emitted during the decay of certain radioactive isotopes. They play a significant role in medical imaging and therapy, particularly in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). This essay will discuss the role of beta particles in medical imaging and therapy, focusing on their properties, applications in imaging and radionuclide therapy, and potential future developments.
Beta particles are subatomic particles emitted during beta decay, which can be of two types: beta-minus (β-) decay and beta-plus (β+) decay. Beta-minus particles are electrons, while beta-plus particles are positrons (the antimatter counterpart of electrons). Both types of beta particles have a negative or positive charge and a relatively low mass, and they can travel several millimetres to centimetres in biological tissues.
The range of beta particles depends on their energy, with higher-energy particles travelling greater distances. As ionising radiation, beta particles can interact with and damage biological molecules, such as DNA, which can be exploited for therapeutic purposes.
Applications in Medical Imaging
Beta particles, particularly positrons (β+), play a significant role in medical imaging through positron emission tomography (PET). PET imaging relies on detecting gamma rays produced when a positron emitted by a radiotracer annihilates with an electron in the surrounding tissue.
Radiotracers used in PET imaging are typically labelled with positron-emitting isotopes, such as fluorine-18 (F-18), carbon-11 (C-11), or oxygen-15 (O-15). These tracers can target specific biological processes or molecules, allowing for functional imaging of various physiological and pathological conditions.
Some typical applications of PET imaging using beta-emitting radiotracers include:
- PET scans using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) are widely used for cancer diagnosis, staging, and monitoring treatment response. FDG is a glucose analogue that accumulates in cells with high glucose metabolism, such as cancer cells.
- In neurology, PET imaging with beta-emitting radiotracers, such as C-11 PiB for Alzheimer’s disease or F-18 fluorodopa for Parkinson’s disease, enables the visualisation of specific neurotransmitter systems and pathological processes in the brain.
- Beta-emitting radiotracers, such as N-13 ammonia or rubidium-82, are used in PET imaging to assess myocardial perfusion and evaluate blood flow in the heart.
Applications in Radionuclide Therapy
Beta particles are also used in radionuclide therapy, delivering a targeted dose of ionising radiation to cancer cells or other pathological tissues. Beta-emitting radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (I-131), lutetium-177 (Lu-177), and yttrium-90 (Y-90), can be attached to cancer-targeting molecules, like antibodies or peptides, to form radiopharmaceuticals.
Examples of beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in therapy include:
- I-131 for thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism: Iodine-131 is a beta-emitting isotope used to treat differentiated thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. After oral administration, I-131 accumulates in the thyroid gland, delivering a localised dose of beta radiation to destroy cancerous or overactive thyroid cells.
- Lu-177-DOTATATE for neuroendocrine tumours: Lutetium-177 is a beta-emitting isotope conjugated to the peptide DOTATATE, which targets somatostatin receptors overexpressed on the surface of neuroendocrine tumour cells. This radiopharmaceutical, known as Lutathera, selectively delivers beta radiation to neuroendocrine tumours, causing DNA damage and cell death. Lu-177-DOTATATE has been approved for treating gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) and has shown promising results in clinical trials, with improved progression-free survival and reduced tumour burden in many patients.
- Y-90 microspheres for liver cancer: Yttrium-90 is a beta-emitting isotope that can be incorporated into microspheres (tiny beads) to treat liver cancer. The Y-90 microspheres are delivered via a catheter directly into the hepatic artery, which supplies blood to the liver tumours. The microspheres become lodged in the tumour’s blood vessels, providing a high dose of localised beta radiation that destroys cancer cells while sparing healthy liver tissue. This treatment, known as selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) or radioembolisation, has been used to treat primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) and liver metastases from other cancers.
Challenges and Future Perspectives
The role of beta particles in medical imaging and therapy, there are several challenges and areas for improvement:
- Developing effective and safe beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals requires optimisation of the targeting molecule, chelator, and radionuclide to ensure selective delivery and minimal off-target effects. This involves extensive preclinical research and testing.
- Accurate dosimetry is crucial for determining the optimal therapeutic dose while minimising the risk of radiation-induced side effects. Improved dosimetry models and methods are needed to predict better beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals’ biodistribution, radiation dose, and potential toxicities.
- Combining beta-emitting radionuclide therapy with other treatment modalities, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapies, may enhance treatment efficacy and overcome resistance mechanisms. However, these therapies’ optimal combination, sequencing, and timing must be investigated in preclinical and clinical studies.
- As with any cancer therapy, there is a need for personalised medicine approaches in beta-emitting radionuclide therapy to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from the treatment. Biomarkers and imaging techniques that can predict treatment response and monitor treatment effects are critical for the optimal selection and management of patients.
In summary, beta particles play a crucial role in medical imaging and therapy, with applications in PET imaging and radionuclide therapy for various cancer types and other diseases. Developing novel beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, optimisation of dosimetry, and integrating combination therapies and personalised medicine approaches can potentially improve patient outcomes and expand the applications of beta particles in medicine. Continued research, development, and collaboration across disciplines will be essential to realise the full potential of beta particles in medical imaging and therapy.
The Role of Electron Capture in Medical Imaging
Electron capture is a nuclear decay process in which a proton-rich nuclide captures one of its atomic electrons, converting a proton into a neutron and emitting a neutrino. This process can produce gamma rays, which can be utilised in medical imaging techniques like single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This essay will discuss the role of electron capture in medical imaging, focusing on its implications for radiotracer design, applications in SPECT imaging, and potential future developments.
The electron capture process can play a role in the design of radiotracers for medical imaging. For example, isotopes that undergo electron capture can emit gamma rays, which can be detected using gamma cameras to create a functional image of the distribution of the radiotracer in the body.
The choice of an isotope is critical when designing a radiotracer for medical imaging. Isotopes that undergo electron capture typically have relatively long half-lives, making them suitable for imaging studies requiring extended tracer distribution and uptake periods. Additionally, the energy of the emitted gamma rays should be optimal for detection and imaging while minimising the radiation dose to the patient.
Applications in SPECT Imaging
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a nuclear medicine imaging technique that relies on detecting gamma rays emitted by radiotracers. SPECT has been widely used for various clinical applications, including oncology, cardiology, and neurology.
Radiotracers used in SPECT imaging can be designed with isotopes that undergo electron capture, emitting gamma rays that the gamma camera can detect. Some common electron capture isotopes used in SPECT imaging include:
- Thallium-201 (Tl-201) is an isotope that undergoes electron capture, emitting gamma rays with energies of 69 and 81 keV. Tl-201 has been used as a radiotracer in SPECT imaging for myocardial perfusion, helping to diagnose coronary artery disease and assess the viability of heart tissue after a heart attack.
- Gallium-67 (Ga-67) is another isotope that undergoes electron capture, emitting gamma rays with energies ranging from 93 to 300 keV. Ga-67 citrate has been used as a radiotracer in SPECT imaging for infection, inflammation, and tumour imaging in certain types of cancers, such as lymphoma.
- Indium-111 (In-111) is an isotope that undergoes electron capture, emitting gamma rays with energies of 171 and 245 keV. In-111 can be conjugated to various targeting molecules, such as antibodies or peptides, to create radiotracers for SPECT imaging of specific biological targets. Some examples include In-111-labeled octreotide for neuroendocrine tumour imaging and In-111-labeled leukocytes for infection imaging.
Challenges and Future Perspectives
While electron capture plays a role in medical imaging through the design and application of SPECT radiotracers, there are several challenges and areas for improvement:
- Developing effective and safe electron capture-based radiotracers requires optimisation of the targeting molecule, chelator, and radionuclide to ensure selective delivery and minimal off-target effects. This involves extensive preclinical research and testing.
- The energy of gamma rays emitted by electron capture isotopes can affect image quality and sensitivity. High-energy gamma rays may increase scatter and attenuation, while low-energy gamma rays may be more susceptible to absorption in the patient’s body.
- Optimising the energy of the emitted gamma rays is essential for achieving high-quality images and maximising sensitivity in SPECT imaging. Therefore, radiotracers designed with electron capture isotopes should be carefully selected and evaluated based on the energy of their emitted gamma rays to minimise the adverse effects on image quality and sensitivity.
Advancements in Detector Technology and Image Reconstruction Algorithms
Technological advancements in gamma camera detectors and image reconstruction algorithms can help address the challenges associated with the energy of gamma rays emitted by electron capture isotopes. For example, new detector materials with higher energy resolution and improved efficiency can reduce scatter and attenuation effects, resulting in better image quality and sensitivity.
Similarly, advancements in image reconstruction algorithms, such as iterative reconstruction methods and scatter correction techniques, can help compensate for the effects of high-energy gamma rays on image quality and sensitivity. These improvements can lead to more accurate and reliable SPECT images, enabling better diagnosis and monitoring of diseases.
While electron capture-based, SPECT imaging offers unique advantages; it is essential to consider its strengths and limitations compared to other imaging techniques, such as PET imaging. For example, PET imaging, which relies on detecting annihilation photons resulting from positron-electron interactions, often provides higher sensitivity and spatial resolution than SPECT imaging. Moreover, the development of PET tracers labelled with positron-emitting isotopes has expanded rapidly, enabling the imaging of a broader range of biological targets and processes.
However, SPECT imaging using electron capture isotopes offers some advantages over PET imaging, such as the availability of a broader range of gamma-ray energies and the possibility of using multiple tracers in a single imaging session. Additionally, SPECT imaging is often more accessible and affordable than PET imaging, making it a valuable alternative or complementary tool in medical imaging.
In summary, Electron capture plays a significant role in medical imaging by designing and applying radiotracers for SPECT imaging. However, the energy of gamma rays emitted by electron capture isotopes can affect image quality and sensitivity, highlighting the importance of optimising radiotracer design and utilising advancements in detector technology and image reconstruction algorithms.
The challenges and limitations associated with electron capture-based SPECT imaging, it remains a valuable tool in medical imaging for various clinical applications, including oncology, cardiology, and neurology. Continued research and development in radiotracer design, detector technology, and image reconstruction methods will be essential for maximising the potential of electron capture in medical imaging and expanding its applications in disease diagnosis and management.
Harnessing Subatomic Particles: Transforming Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging for the Future
In conclusion, positrons, alpha particles, beta particles, and electron capture contribute significantly to the advancements and diverse applications in nuclear medicine and medical imaging. Understanding their distinct properties and functions is essential for researchers and clinicians to harness their potential for diagnosing and treating various diseases. The ongoing development of novel radiotracers, imaging techniques, and therapeutic applications based on these subatomic particles and nuclear decay processes continues to revolutionise the field, offering new possibilities for patient care and the advancement of personalised medicine. As technology and our understanding of these particles and processes evolve, the future of nuclear medicine and medical imaging holds immense promise for improving disease diagnosis, management, and therapy outcomes.You Are Here: Home »